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Volume 19 Fall-Winter Exile and Transcendence. Edited by Bettina L. Knapp Bettina L. We are still operating with the hindsight furnished by the time frame circa , when Philippe Auguste derisively known. Georges Duby, Le dimanche de Bouvines : 27 juillet , Paris, We might interpret the shepherdess's complaint about her own marriage interrupted by war as a signal for the audience to recall the series of marriages, alliances formed and disrupted, in which Arras and other Artesian cities have been traded back and forth between France and Flanders as both dowry and war booty. Porte au maieur d'Arras ce brief, Fai tant c'on devant lui le lise : Se Dieu plaist et sa gentelise, Ja en lui ne perdrai mon fief Jean Bodel's own richly diverse corpus gives witness to.

I would like to thank Carol Symes for sharing with me her work in progress, ample bibliography, and. Arras has belonged to the French monarchy since the treaty of , but it has neither forgotten its Flemish connections nor its own best interests. Previous scholars have identified the shepherdess as aporte parole for the poet Jehan Bodel, whose name appears in the rubric and index of ms.

Although the identification with bourgeois ideology has been contested, the reorientation of pastourelle politics into political. Daniel Poinon, Paris, , p. See Foulon's justification for rejecting the attribution in ms. See also Brasseur' s succinct but detailed summary of the political context shaping the pastourelle p. Whereas a serventois's social or political agenda remains uncharted by generic custom, an open slot that each poem must define, Jehan Bodel finds ready made in the basic structures of a pastourelle the perfect fit for an Artesian point of view. In the classic scenario, the shepherdess starts out by definition in a position of inferiority, both social and physical.

But the potential for power inscribed in language may confer upon her a certain superiority over the knight — if she can grab and hold on to it. In Contre le douz tans, Bodel capitalizes on just such a non-aristocratic speaker to dramatize a point of view his audience can readily identify with the commune of Arras.

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According to the well-established traditions of the pastourelle, the shepherdess boldly enters into the struggle with superior powers and has at least a chance to prevail in spite of her lower social status, doubled and dramatized by the weakness of her sex. She thus appears the most appropriate choice to defend local interests — represented by fictional shepherds and shepherdesses, making music and love — against the passing power of knights and lords, who want to trade favors for sex and, when that fails, take it by force.

In this scenario, the outspoken shepherdess, whose own marriage of equals, Perrin with Perronelle, has been jeopardized by the quarreling Flemish and the cowardly French, is the most apt figure for Arras pawned off in marriage alliances, traded in political deals between greater powers, but not ready to capitulate to any of them without claiming her own municipal rights Arras, Without ignoring the conventional nature of these motifs, I would suggest that in his other pastourelles Bodel emphasizes the dichotomy between work and love, which may also locate these pastoral fictions in relation to the " realistic " concerns of city dwellers as well as country folk.

Jehan Bodel thus compresses into four short stanzas a complex historical tale, of urgent interest to his immediate public, still fascinating for the modern reader obliged to reconstruct it less lyrically as a narrative of events and a survey of political and dynastic struggles. Let me conclude my own tale by pointing out how Jehan Bodel's political pastourelle does not conclude.

Enrique de Lagardere: El Jorobado (Enrique Lagardere: The Hunchback)

Noting the last stanza's shortened form, the latest editor suggests that it may have been mutilated, losing a quatrain between the fourth and fifth verses Such speculation is hard to prove or disprove, but, if we read the stanza as it appears, its current shape strikes me as beautifully congruent with the situation evoked.

In commenting on the formal characteristics of the stanza chosen for this pastourelle, Foulon has pointed out the relative rarity of its strictly alternating form : seven and five syllable lines, masculine and feminine rhymes, ping pong back and forth throughout the song, giving it an added rhythmic punch to reinforce the multiple levels of the confrontation.

Foulon sees the unusual placement of the refrain as a way to underline the overall movement of the couplet just before the end of each stanza If we look again at that last stanza, we may read its shortened form as the oral signal embedded in a typically shortened envoi. It implicitly announces that the song is reaching its end, without giving the knight a chance to reply. The interjection of the refrain two verses before the end marks a lyric pause after the " re-signification " of the knight as French perjurer.

While the shepherdess's identity has remained constant, his identity has constantly shifted throughout the poem between would-be lover and lord, from Flemish loudmouth to French soldier trapped on the other side of the Lys. The problem of inheritance is indeed the problem of the.

With a light touch and with his gift for hyridizing still evident as he narrates the killing of the wolf in mock epic style , Bodel sketches a picture of hardworking shepherds and shepherdesses whose concerns for keeping sheep and accounting for lost ones may disrupt the perfect harmonies of love, just as in Le douz tans he highlights the disruptions introduced by war in the world of sexual gratification promised by the pastourelle.

As far as we know, Jehan Bodel did not live to see Bouvines, and he undoubtedly did not yet have the benefit of our hindsight. But composers and listeners of pastourelles know that a variety of endings are possible. Knights may use superior muscles to force a resisting shepherdess, or they may just go away. We don't know about this one, but Jehan Bodel's political pastourelle has inscribed the potential for further plots in the unpredictable twists and turns of historical events and literary fictions.

Appendix Pastourelle V in Brasseur's edition.

Annette Lais (Classic Reprint) : Paul Feval :

Amez moi! Maint bel joiel III La pastore ot cler le vis. Sire, j'ai mon euer pramis Et m'amor donee : Qui de l'autre part le Lis Font lor assamblee? But I believe no one else has asked as pointedly as I would like to here why Jehan Bodel chose the form of the pastou- 1. We need to take a few more 4. In Contre le douz tans novel, the knight finds a shepherdess wearing leafy crown and belt of reeds, dressed only in her robe : " Em pure 8. BRUCKNER So ends the pastourelle with a vigorous scolding and forecast of French defeat, a prognosis that allows literary historians to date its composition between the end of 1 and August 1